Farnesoid X receptor activation increases cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression in humans and transgenic mice
Gautier, Thomas × de Haan, Willeke Grober, Jacques Ye, Dan Bahr, Matthias J Claudel, Thierry Nijstad, Niels Van Berkel, Theo J C Havekes, Louis M Manns, Michael P Willems, Stefan M Hogendoorn, Pancras C W Lagrost, Laurent Kuipers, Folkert Van Eck, Miranda Rensen, Patrick C N Tietge, Uwe J F #
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Journal of Lipid Research vol:54 issue:8 pages:2195-205
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity results in a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile. In cholestatic conditions, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling by bile acids (BA) is activated and plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are low. This study tested the hypothesis that FXR-mediated induction of CETP contributes to this phenotype. Patients with cholestasis and high plasma BA had lower HDL-C levels and higher plasma CETP activity and mass compared with matched controls with low plasma BA (each P < 0.01). BA feeding in APOE3*Leiden transgenic mice expressing the human CETP transgene controlled by its endogenous promoter increased cholesterol within apoB-containing lipoproteins and decreased HDL-C (each P < 0.01), while hepatic CETP mRNA expression and plasma CETP activity and mass increased (each P < 0.01). In vitro studies confirmed that FXR agonists substantially augmented CETP mRNA expression in hepatocytes and macrophages dependent on functional FXR expression (each P < 0.001). These transcriptional effects are likely mediated by an ER8 FXR response element (FXRE) in the first intron. In conclusion, using a translational approach, this study identifies CETP as novel FXR target gene. By increasing CETP expression, FXR activation leads to a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile. These results have clinical relevance, especially when considering FXR agonists as emerging treatment strategy for metabolic disease and atherosclerosis.