Global Power Europe – Vol. 1. Theoretical and Institutional Approaches to the EU’s External Relations pages:181-199
This chapter discusses EU external governance in climate policy, conceptualizing a toolbox of policy options. The EU can make use of different tools, which can be introduced either unilaterally or bi- and multilaterally, to exert influence in global climate governance. These tools can be hard or soft policy. This leads to a classification of EU external governance tools into four groups: international treaties and agreements, cooperation with extra-EU jurisdictions, coercion and incentives, and external effects of EU pioneering policy. Each of the groups of tools holds potential to advance EU influence in international climate governance, but they also have limitations. None of the tools is a silver bullet that solves all problems. While the EU prefers multilateral solutions, this is challenging in cli-mate policy in practice. International climate negotiations progress slowly and may prove insufficient for the EU to pursue its climate policy goals. Whether the EU achieves its climate governance goals depends on its skill in using the entire external governance toolbox effectively.