In this contribution we discuss the potential of the Most Different Similar Outcome/Most Similar Different Outcome technique. The technique enables to cope with the degrees of freedom problem (large number of conditions/ small number of cases). Via a systematic comparison of pairs of cases, the method identifies the conditions of likely most explanatory relevance to understand differences and similarities in outcome. The actual causal power of the conditions and the underlying causal mechanisms can be subsequently explored with other qualitative methods. The technique relies on the same causal assumptions as other configurational comparative methods, as Qualitative Comparative Analysis.