Universality of Reason. Plurality of Philosophies in the Middle Ages pages:1197-1201
Biblioteca dell’Officina di Studi Medievali; 14.II.2
Congresso Internazionale di Filosofia Medievale de la Société Internationale pour l’Étude de la Philosophie Médiévale (S.I.E.P.M) edition:12 location:Palermo date:17-22 settembre 2007
For Aristotle a substance is in the first place a living natural substance, then a non-living natural substance, and finally a product of art, which is a substance by imitation. Thus he implies that there is an analogy of substance. In De An. Aristotle identified soul with the form in living beings, but did not take the next step which would be to hold that the only real form is soul. Many mediaeval thinkers understood that there is a problem if all existing things are held to be substances in the same way. Aquinas proposed an analogy of being, others a theory of multiplicity of forms. But the simplest and best solution would have been the theory of analogy of substance implicit in Aristotle's thought.