HIV-1 Gag amino acid substitutions associated with protease inhibitor (PI) treatment have mainly been reported in subtype B, while information on other subtypes is scarce. Using sequences from 11613 patients infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, we evaluated the prevalence of 93 Gag amino acid substitutions and their association with genotypic PI resistance. A significant association was found for 13 Gag substitutions, including A431V in both subtype B and CRF01_AE. K415R in subtype C and S451G in subtype B were newly identified. Most PI-associated Gag substitutions are located in the flexible C-terminal domain, revealing the key role this region plays in PI resistance.