Title: Patterns of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in Europe Vary by Risk Group
Authors: Frentz, Dineke ×
van de Vijver, David
Abecasis, Ana
Albert, Jan
Hamouda, Osamah
Jorgensen, Louise
Kucherer, Claudia
Struck, Daniel
Schmit, Jean-Claude
Vercauteren, Jurgen
Asjo, Birgitta
Balotta, Claudia
Bergin, Colm
Beshkov, Danail
Camacho, Ricardo Jorge
Clotet, Bonaventura
Griskevicius, Algirdas
Grossman, Zehava
Horban, Andrzej
Kolupajeva, Tatjana
Korn, Klaus
Kostrikis, Leondios
Linka, Kirsi Liitsola Marek
Nielsen, Claus
Otelea, Dan
Paraskevis, Dimitrios
Paredes, Roger
Poljak, Mario
Puchhammer-Stoeckl, Elisabeth
Sonnerborg, Anders
Stanekova, Danica
Stanojevic, Maja
Vandamme, Anne-Mieke
Boucher, Charles
Wensing, Annemarie #
Contributors: Van Wijngaerden, Eric
Issue Date: 2014
Series Title: PLOS ONE vol:9 issue:4 pages:e94495-e94495

In Europe, a continuous programme (SPREAD) has been in place for ten years to study transmission of drug resistant HIV. We analysed time trends of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) in relation to the risk behaviour reported.


HIV-1 patients newly diagnosed in 27 countries from 2002 through 2007 were included. Inclusion was representative for risk group and geographical distribution in the participating countries in Europe. Trends over time were calculated by logistic regression.


From the 4317 patients included, the majority was men-having-sex-with-men -MSM (2084, 48%), followed by heterosexuals (1501, 35%) and injection drug users (IDU) (355, 8%). MSM were more often from Western Europe origin, infected with subtype B virus, and recently infected (<1 year) (p<0.001). The prevalence of TDRM was highest in MSM (prevalence of 11.1%), followed by heterosexuals (6.6%) and IDU (5.1%, p<0.001). TDRM was predominantly ascribed to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) with a prevalence of 6.6% in MSM, 3.3% in heterosexuals and 2.0% in IDU (p = 0.001). A significant increase in resistance to non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and a decrease in resistance to protease inhibitors was observed in MSM (p = 0.008 and p = 0.006, respectively), but not in heterosexual patients (p = 0.68 and p = 0.14, respectively).


MSM showed to have significantly higher TDRM prevalence compared to heterosexuals and IDU. The increasing NNRTI resistance in MSM is likely to negatively influence the therapy response of first-line therapy, as most include NNRTI drugs.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Laboratory for Clinical Infectious and Inflammatory Disorders
Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Virology (Rega Institute)
Department of Microbiology & Immunology - miscellaneous
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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