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Title: Territorial Dispersion Patterns of Residential Areas. Urban Sprawl as an Outcome of Multi-scalar Territorial Governance Processes of Land Bargaining in the Barcelona and Milan Metropolitan Regions.
Other Titles: Territoriale verspreidingpatronen van residentiële gebieden. Urban sprawl als resultaat van multi scalar territoriale governance processen van land bargaining in de stedelijke agglomeraties Barcelona en Milaan.
Authors: Pagliarin, Sofia
Issue Date: 18-Nov-2014
Abstract: This research deals with the territorial dispersion patterns in the expansion of residential areas, i.e. urban sprawl, conceived as an outcome of governance processes.Urban sprawl, as a type of land use transformation, originates from the decisions over land management carried out by certain actors. An appropriate theoretical framework is proposed, and empirically implemented, to analyze actorsÂ’ governance dynamics of land management. Such effort is particularly relevant because, in the international literature on urban sprawl, political and planning factors are only limitedly focused on. The attempt to address this lacuna is performed by combining a territorial, multi-scalar and multi-actor governance perspective with the bargaining context model.Urban sprawl is defined as a predominantly residential phenomenon, and two case studies are considered, namely the metropolitan areas of Barcelona and Milan. In both case studies, urban sprawl is measured through different spatial scales (administrative boundaries, metropolitan delimitations, Larger Urban Zones, Urban Morphological Zones and NUTS 3 level or provinces) for a period of approximately 50 years, employing both local data, for the 1950s-2000s timespan, and the Corine Land Cover (CLC) surveys for 1990, 2000 and 2006.The analysis shows that there has been a decentralization of urban functions (industries, services, housing) in both Barcelona and Milan, facilitated by the growth of transport infrastructures (hypothesis 1). However, evidence has shown that the built-up forms in Barcelona are less territorially dispersed in terms of residential areas than in the case of Milan.Through the analysis of demographic data (1981-2011), demographic de-concentration processes from the city center to the metropolitan areas and regions of both cities have been identified; however, in the Barcelona case the population remains more concentrated, while in the Milan case it is more dispersed.Barcelona province is less fragmented than Milan: hence, in general, less administrative fragmentation (number of municipalities per province) can be a sufficient condition to observe a lesser spatially dispersed pattern of residential areas.With regard to governance processes, the analysis of qualitative data (interviews, documents and planning regulations) reveals that municipalities (the local scale) hold the wider competences over local urban planning (hypothesis 2). Within their relative metropolitan area, local governments take localized planning decisions over urban development in order to compete for attracting resources as compared to the adjacent municipalities (hypothesis 3). Hence, urban sprawl consists of land use micro-transformations carried out by local authorities to obtain a competitive edge with regard to the other municipalities located within the metropolitan boundaries.The different territorial dispersion patterns of residential areas observed in Barcelona and Milan are explained by the decisive role that the metropolitan and regional governments play(ed) with regard to land management. From the performed analysis it can be concluded that, for urban sprawl containment, not only the metropolitan scale is relevant (hypothesis 4), but in turn the cooperation between actors at the metropolitan and regional authorities is crucial. In particular, the predominant position of the regional government is key for land containment.
Description: Joint PhD Diploma between the Department of Social Sciences and Research of the Bicocca University of Milan (Italy), 'URBEUR Programme' (Urban and Local European Studies), and the Department of Architecture, Urban Design and Regional Planning of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 'Planning&Development' Research Group
Table of Contents: List of figures iii
List of tables iv
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Urban sprawl: a land management issue 1
1.1.1 Case studies 5
1.1.2 Research questions and hypotheses 6
1.2 Research design and thesis outline 8

2 Defining Urban Sprawl 13
2.1 Space, society and land use 13
2.1.1 The focus on land use and land use change 17
2.2 Land use change and suburban housing 20
2.3 Defining urban sprawl 25
2.3.1 Definitions of urban sprawl in the European context 30
2.4 The tension between the compact and the sprawling
city 39
2.4.1 European Union and OECD policies for the compact
and sustainable city 42
2.5 Urban Sprawl: a provisional, theoretical definition 45
2.6 Summary 48

3 Driving factors towards urban sprawl 49
3.1 Explaining urban sprawl in European cities 49
3.1.1 Macro-economic factors 52
3.1.2 Mobility factors 53
3.1.3 Socio-demographic factors 55
3.1.4 Cultural factors 59
3.1.5 Micro-economic factors 62
3.1.6 Geographical and urban environment factors 64
3.1.7 Political and planning factors 65
3.1.8 Interaction between factors affecting urban sprawl 69
3.2 The particular role of governance processes in the occurrence of urban sprawl 71
3.3 Summary 75

4 Urban sprawl as an outcome of territorial governance
processes 77
4.1 What is governance? 78
4.2 State-centered governance 83
4.3 The emergence of the multi-level governance approach 84
4.4 Local and urban governance 89
4.5 Territorial, multi^scalar governance 93
4.6 The strategic relational approach and meta-governance 96
4.7 A 'governance story' for land management with a focus on urban political choices 98
4.7.1 Entrepreneurialism 101
4.7.2 Urban regime theory 102
4.7.3 The growth machine 104
4.7.4 The 'marketplace' and the bargaining context model 105
4.8 Land management: combining the bargaining context
model with territorial governance 107
4.9 Summary 116

5 Methods for empirical research 117
5.1 Research questions 119
5.2 Hypotheses 119
5.3 Research design 129
5.3.1 The Corine Land Cover (CLC) nomenclature for an
operational definition of urban sprawl 133
5.3.2 The logic of case studies comparison 137
5.3.3 Selection of the two case studies 138
5.3.4 Urban development in Barcelona and Milan 149
5.4 The problem of urban scale definition 152
5.5 Summarizing possible links between multi-scalar governance features and residential sprawl practice 155
5.6 Interviews as a qualitative research method 160
5.7 Summary 161

6 Territorial dispersion patterns in Barcelona
and Milan 163
6.1 Barcelona and Milan: cities, metropolitan areas or urban systems? 163
6.2 Territorial dispersion patterns of urban sprawl in Barcelona and Milan metropolitan regions 167
6.2.1 Recent historical patterns of territorial dispersion in Barcelona and Milan metropolitan areas 167
6.2.2 The Corine Land Cover (CLC) dataset (1990-2006) intersected with Barcelona and Milan administrative boundaries, LUZ, UMZ and NUTS3 184
6.3 Summary 200

7 Explaining territorial dispersion patterns of urban sprawl in Barcelona and Milan from a territorial governance
perspective 201
7.1 Demography 203
7.2 Administrative fragmentation 211
7.3 Positioning Barcelona and Milan in the bargaining context model framework and within territorial governance
dynamics 215
7.4 Explaining urban sprawl as an outcome of territorial, multi-scalar and multi-actor governance processes in Barcelona and Milan 226
7.4.1 A multi-scalar governance system: Barcelona 227
7.4.2 A multi-scalar governance system: Milan 259
7.4.3 A reference table 292

8 Discussion and conclusions 295
8.1 Conclusions 295
8.2 Discussion 307
8.3 Comparative strengths and shortcomings 312
8.4 Policy recommendations 313
8.5 Suggestions for further research 315

Appendices 319
A The Corine Land Cover 1990, 2000 and 2006 surveys 321
B Case studies selection for comparative analysis 327
B.l The selection of Barcelona and Milan 339
B.2 Local datasets for Barcelona and Milan 341
C Scale definition: city and metropolitan boundaries 343
C.0.1 Larger Urban Zones (LUZ) 343
C.0.2 Urban Morphological Zones (UMZ) 345
D Interviews 347
D.l Maps as photo^stimuli for interviews 356

Bibliography 361


List of Figures
1.1 Research outline flowchart 11
3.1 Main drivers towards urban sprawl 50
3.2 De Decker's (2011) analytical model of housing patterns in their historical contexts 72
4.1 The 'relative location' of governance approaches 99
4.2 Different approaches to the concept of 'bargaining' 111
4.3 The key concepts employed to forge the conceptual
framework 112
4.4 A territorial, multi-scalar housing model 115

6.1 Administrative and metropolitan territorial scales of
Barcelona, I 166
6.2 Administrative and metropolitan territorial scales of
Barcelona, II 166
6.3 Administrative and metropolitan territorial scales of
Milan, I 168
6.4 Administrative and metropolitan territorial scales of
Milan, II 168

7.1 Residential re-localization in Barcelona metropolitan region and Catalonia, 1996-2001 206
7.2 Comarques of the Catalan Region 241
7.3 Comarques of the Barcelona province 241
7.4 Territorial poles of Catalonia 244
7.5 Territorial poles of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (RMB) 244

B.l An example of Corine Land Cover data: Gaggiano,
Milan, Italy 336
B.2 An example of DUSAF data: Gaggiano, Milan, Italy 336
D.l Corine Land Cover data (CLC) in the Barcelona area 359
D.2 Corine Land Cover data (CLC) in the Milan area 359
D.3 Map of Barcelona employed for the interviews 360
D.4 Map of Milan employed for the interviews 360


List of Tables
2.1 Land uses in Europe (1.221 NUTS 3 levels) in hectares,
Corine Land Cover surveys 1990, 2000 and 2006 22
2.2 Growth rate of land uses in Europe (1.221 NUTS 3 levels), Corine Land Cover surveys 1990, 2000 and 2006 23

5.1 The connection between theory, research questions,
hypotheses, methods and data 127
5.2 Indicators for the selection of the case studies 142
5.3 54 NUTS 144
5.4 The territorial scales of Barcelona and Milan taken into consideration in this dissertation 155
5.5 Key dimensions for empirical research 159

6.1 AMB Land uses (1956-2006) for Barcelona municipality 173
6.2 Land uses (1956-2006) for the Barcelona Metropolitan Area (AMB) 174
6.3 Land uses (1956-2006) for the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (RMB) 175
6.4 Proportion of discontinuous residential areas (1956-2006) for Barcelona. 176
6.5 DUSAF Land uses (1954-2009) for Milan municipality 180
6.6 DUSAF Land uses (1954-2009) for the Milan Metropolitan
Area 181
6.7 DUSAF Land uses (1954-2009) for the Milan and Monza
provinces 182
6.8 Proportion of discontinuous residential areas (1956-2009) for Milan 183
6.9 Corine Land Cover classes (1990-2006) intersected with Barcelona administrative boundaries 187
6.10 Corine Land Cover classes (1990-2006) intersected with
Milan administrative boundaries 188
6.11 Corine Land Cover classes (1990-2006) intersected with Barcelona Larger Urban Zones (LUZ) 190
6.12 Corine Land Cover classes (1990-2006) intersected with
Milan Larger Urban Zones (LUZ) 191
6.13 Corine Land Cover classes (1990-2006) intersected with Barcelona Urban Morphological Zone (UMZ) 193
6.14 Corine Land Cover classes (1990-2006) intersected with
Milan Urban Morphological Zone (UMZ) 194
6.15 Corine Land Cover classes (1990-2006) for the Barcelona
province (NUTS3 area). 197
6.16 Corine Land Cover classes (1990-2006) for the Milan
province (NUTS3 area). 198
6.17 Proportions of newly built- up areas (1990- 2006) in
Barcelona and Milan. 199

7.1 Total number of inhabitants and population change
1981-2011 for Barcelona. 204
7.2 Proportion of inhabitants of Barcelona to the population in Catalonia, 1981-2011. 204
7.3 Total number of inhabitants and population change
1981-2011 for Milan. 208
7.4 Proportion of inhabitants of Milan to the population in
Lombardy, 1981-2011. 208
7.5 Municipal sizes in Barcelona and Milan provinces 213
7.6 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1981 and 2011 for Lombardy 218
7.7 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1981 and 2011 for the Milan province 218
7.8 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1981 and 2011 for Milan municipality 218
7.9 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1981 and 2001 for Milan metropolitan
area (PIM) 219
7.10 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1991 and 2011 for Catalonia 221
7.11 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1991 and 2011 for the Barcelona province 221
7.12 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1991 and 2011 for the Barcelona
Metropolitan Region (RMB) 221
7.13 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1991 and 2011 for the Barcelona
Metropolitan Area (AMB) 222
7.14 Employed persons (absolute values) by grand sector
between years 1991 and 2011 for Barcelona municipality 222
7.15 Mechanisms and actors at the meso level of land
management for suburban housing provision in the
Barcelona case 228
7.16 Mechanisms and actors at the meso level of land
management for suburban housing provision in the
Milan case 260
7.17 A reference table of plans and planning regulations for Barcelona and Milan. 293
A.l Corine Land Cover nomenclature 324
B.l Comparison among the 1990, 2000 and 2006 Corine Land
Cover surveys. 329
B.2 Indicators for the selection of the case studies 334
B.3 54 NUTS 337
D.l List of interviewees 350
ISBN: 978-94-9165-603-3
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Architecture and Society (+)

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