Among the RNA viruses, other than the retroviruses (that is, HIV), which are dealt with separately in the current FactFile, the most important targets for the development of antiviral agents at the moment are the orthomyxoviruses (that is, influenza), the hepaciviruses (that is, hepatitis C virus [HCV]) and, to a lesser extent, the picornaviruses. Although the uncoating inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine were the first known inhibitors of influenza A, the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir have now become the prime antiviral drugs for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. For HCV infections, standard treatment consists of the combination of pegylated interferon-alpha with ribavirin, but several other antivirals targeted at specific viral functions such as the HCV protease and/ or polymerase may be expected to soon take an important share of this important market. Still untapped is the potential of a variety of uncoating inhibitors, as well as protease and/or polymerase inhibitors against the wide spectrum of picornaviruses. While ribavirin has been available for 35 years as a broad-spectrum anti-RNA virus agent, relatively new and unexplored is favipiravir (T-705) accredited with activity against influenza as well as flaviviruses, bunyaviruses and arenaviruses.