Caspase-14, an important proteinase involved in filaggrin catabolism, is mainly active in terminally differentiating keratinocytes, where it is required for the generation of skin natural moisturizing factors (NMFs). Consequently, caspase-14 deficient epidermis is characterized by reduced levels of NMFs such as urocanic acid and 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid. Patients suffering from filaggrin deficiency are prone to develop atopic dermatitis, which is accompanied with increased microbial burden. Among several reasons, this effect could be due to a decrease in filaggrin breakdown products. In this study, we found that caspase-14(-/-) mice show enhanced antibacterial response compared to wild-type mice when challenged with bacteria. Therefore, we compared the microbial communities between wild-type and caspase-14(-/-) mice by sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. We observed that caspase-14 ablation leads to an increase in bacterial richness and diversity during steady-state conditions. Although both wild-type and caspase-14(-/-) skin were dominated by the Firmicutes phylum, the Staphylococcaceae family was reduced in caspase-14(-/-) mice. Altogether, our data demonstrated that caspase-14 deficiency causes the imbalance of the skin-resident bacterial communities.