JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY vol:43 issue:1 pages:77-83
Positive orientation is a new construct posed at the core of positive evaluations about oneself,
life, and the future. Previous findings attested to its associations with health, well-being, and
achievement. In the present study, the authors traced standard measures of self-esteem, life
satisfaction, and dispositional optimism to a common factor attesting to a similar factorial structure in Japan, Germany, and Italy. Partial invariance at both metric and scalar levels further corroborates generality of positive orientation across these 3 countries.