International Journal of Pharmaceutics vol:338 issue:1-2 pages:198-206
In order to improve the dissolution and absorption properties of loviride, a poorly soluble antiviral agent, sucrose co-freeze-dried nanopowders were prepared, characterized and evaluated. Tween 80/poloxamer 188-stabilized nanosuspensions were produced on a laboratory scale using media milling. The milling process was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and resulted in particles with a mean size of 264+/-14nm and a distribution width of 59+/-6nm after 4h of milling. Co-freeze-drying of the nanosuspensions with sucrose had an inhibiting effect on nanoparticle agglomeration and yielded solid "nanopowders" that were resuspendable and homogeneous with respect to loviride content. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) confirmed the presence of small loviride crystallites and indicated that sucrose and poloxamer 188 were crystalline. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed melting peaks of poloxamer 188, sucrose and loviride. Time-resolved XRPD indicated that sucrose crystallization was complete within 24h of storage. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested the formation of sheet-like matrix structures. The dissolution rate of loviride from the nanopowders was excellent. A Caco-2 experiment on the nanopowder showed a significantly higher cumulative amount transported after 120min (1.59+/-0.02mug) compared to the physical mixture (0.93+/-0.01mug) and the untreated loviride (0.74+/-0.03mug).