Osteoporosis International vol:26 issue:1 pages:281-290
High-frequency loading via whole body vibration promotes bone formation and increases bone strength. Whether this translates to positive titanium implant osseointegration in osteoporotic bone was explored in this animal study. An anabolic effect of not only bisphosphonate treatment but also high-frequency loading on implant osseointegration in osteoporotic bone was observed.
The present study investigated the impact of high-frequency (HF) loading, applied via whole body vibration (WBV), on titanium implant osseointegration in healthy versus ovariectomy-induced compromised versus pharmacologically treated compromised bone.
A custom-made Ti implant was inserted into the metaphyseal tibia of 59 rats and left to heal for either 4 or 14 days. Rats were divided into six groups according to their hormonal and mechanical status. WBV, consisting of 10 consecutive frequency steps at an acceleration of 0.3g, was applied daily for either 4 or 14 days. Tissue samples were processed for quantitative histology at the tibial cortical and medullar level. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and by post hoc pairwise comparisons.
The bone healing response at the interface and surrounding titanium implants was negatively influenced by osteoporotic bone conditions, mainly at the trabecular bone level. Furthermore, the administration of bisphosphonates for preventing the ovariectomy-induced impaired peri-implant response was successful. Finally, the effect of HF WBV loading on the peri-implant bone healing was dependent on the bone condition and was anabolic solely in untreated osteoporotic trabecular bone when applied for an extended period of time.
The bone healing response to implant installation is compromised in osteoporotic bone conditions, in particular at the trabecular bone compartment. Meanwhile, not only pharmacological treatment but also mechanical loading via HF WBV can exert a positive effect on implant osseointegration in this specific bone micro-environment. The peri-implant cortical bone, however, seems to be less sensitive to HF WBV loading influences.