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Title: Risk, Vulnerabilities and Protective Aspects of Resilience and Hope in Peru, with an Exploration of Community-based Leaders
Authors: Morote Rios, Roxanna; S0220546
Issue Date: 18-Sep-2014
Abstract: Risk, Vulnerabilities and Protective Aspects of Resilience and Hope in Peru, with an Exploration of Community-based LeadersRoxanna Morote RíosSupervisors: Prof. Dr. Jozef Corveleyn and Prof. Dr. Odin Hjemdal; Co-Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Patricia Martinez Uribe. The study of the protective factors of resilience has broadened the scope of clinical psychology in the last decades (Davydov, Stewart, Ritchie, & Chaudieu, 2010). Resilience explains psychosocial well-being despite of harsh life-circumstances (e.g. war, poverty) or psycho-biological vulnerabilities (e.g. genetic conditions, family neglect or violence) (Collishaw et al., 2007). Recently, empirical research frameworks of resilience have been developed, but they have not been much tested in Latin-America (Ahern, Kiehl, Sole, & Byers, 2006; Campo, Granados, Muñoz, Rodríguez, & Trujillo, 2012; Windle, Bennett, & Noyes, 2011). This dissertation explores the connections and relevance of resilience and hope with potential psychosocial risks and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms) within the Peruvian context.The general research objectives are (1) to validate an empirical framework for doing research on protection, risks and vulnerabilities in Peru; (2) to further develop knowledge about the impact of contextually relevant psycho-social conditions (i.e. age, gender, education, employment, migration) for psychological well-being; and (3) to explore the hypothesis that community-based leaders, in particular women, have higher levels of resilience and hope despite living in disadvantaged conditions. This dissertation presents five empirical studies (Chapters Two to Five) and one appendix of results. Each empirical study is preceded by a literature review focused on the relationships between the variables studied. Chapter Two presents the development of the Spanish-Language Stressful Life- Events Checklist (SL-SLE) with two sequential studies, combining qualitative and quantitative methods, in a large and heterogeneous group of Peruvian adults (N = 844). Additionally, the bi-factor model of the Hopkins Symptoms Check List – 25 (HSCL-25) is verified. In Chapter Three, the configural validity of the six-factors model of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) is tested with two strategies of analysis (i.e. SEM and Multidimensional Scaling). Then, the main effect of the resilience factors in the prediction of affective symptoms (HSCL-25) is established. Chapter Four and Five investigate hope and hopelessness (Herth Hope Scale, HHS) as protection and vulnerability. First, the latent structure of the HHS, and the associations of resilience (RSA) and Hopelessness (HHS) are studied (Chapter Four). Then, the incremental validity of the nine factors of protection of resilience and hope is established by comparing two hierarchical regression models (Chapter Five). The studies identified significant risk factors such as place of origin (i.e. regions) for stressful life-events, female gender for self-evaluation and affective symptoms, low educational attainment for hope, unemployment for depression. Younger age is a risk condition for low levels of all the aspects of protection studied (six of resilience and three of hope) and for high levels of anxiety and depression. Finally, in comparison to College students (N = 393) and adults who are not Community-based leaders (N = 245), Community-based leaders (N = 167) have higher levels of intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of resilience and hope, but not better indices of emotional well-being (i.e. anxiety, depression or hopelessness). Social leadership is significantly related to positive self-evaluation and efficacy, as well as to social and motivational aspects of resilience (competences and resources) and hope (agency, optimism) . There are significant differences in the variables studied for men and women across the groups (in favor of women, for social aspects of resilience), but there is no consistent interaction effect of gender and social leadership (Appendix 1). The models and instruments evaluated in the previous chapters identify meaningful differences in groups of Peruvian adults.The studies are preceded with an Introduction (Chapter One) describing the research framework and psychosocial context in Latin America, and in Peru. In Chapter Six (Overall discussion), we discuss the main findings, strengths and limitations of the studies, as well as further research directions. In the overall conclusion, we discuss some implications for community and mental health research in Peru.
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Clinical Psychology

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