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Title: Towards an Integrated Area Development Approach for Nairobi Metropolitan Region: Analyses of Community-Based Organisations and their Development Strategies against Social and Spatial Polarisation
Other Titles: Naar een geïntegreerde gebiedsgerichte ontwikkelingsbenadering voor de metropolitane regio van Nairobi: Analyses van lokale gemeenschapsgebaseerde organisaties en hun ontwikkelingsstrategieën tegen sociale en ruimtelijke polarisatie
Authors: Macharia, Margaret; S0194003
Issue Date: 26-Nov-2014
Abstract: The PhD research examines social and spatial polarisation in the context of one of Kenya’s rapidly urbanising areas: the Nairobi Region. Its overall objective is to analyse how the state’s development strategies are reinforcing socio-spatial polarisation in the Nairobi Region and also how communities through their community-based organisations are countering urban and regional socio-spatial polarisation. In addition, it focuses on the institutions that govern the actions of the ensemble of actors in the Region, and considers the socio-political as well as spatial relations of the capitalist and non-capitalist forms of economicdevelopment in Nairobi’s urban core and in the neighbouring southern Kajiado County. Furthermore, it employs an integrated analytical approach to study these inter-related aspects of socio-spatial polarisation. To research socio-spatial polarisation and the transformation which isrealised through the agency of the communities, a theoretical approach has been adopted that links the theory of Africa’s moral economy/the economy of affection, with the regulationist theory perspective on uneven development and the social innovation theory’s perspective on spatial development within an integrated analytical framework. Since African societies display a combination of both capitalist as well as non-capitalist social relations, the research necessitated the adoption of an integratedconceptual approach that incorporates both types of relations. Furthermore, each theory complements the other theories and therefore enriches the overall framework through the analytical tools each provides. The economy of affection conceptualises the non-capitalist relations (indigenous and informal institutions) in African societies from a moral economy perspective, while the regulation approach provides a political economy perspective derived from neo-Marxism which focuses on the dynamics of accumulation and regulation in capitalist societies (formal and informal institutions). The regulationist perspective on uneven regional development draws on the concept of path-dependency to explain how a region’s development is significantly dependent on past development strategies. Ultimately, the social innovation perspective on spatial development links the satisfaction of human needs in regions and urban areas, to innovation in the social relationships of governance as they are embedded in the urban area and in the region. The PhD consists of a collection of papers for publication. The first paper, ‘Towards an Enriched Regulationist Perspective of Polarisation in Kenya - The Case of Nairobi’ combines three approaches deriving from Marxian perspectives, specifically the regulation school, uneven geographical development and Africa’s economy ofaffection. The combined theoretical perspective is used to empirically examine Kenya’s uneven spatial development and the maintenance of inequality, characterised by an indigenous capitalist group and a middle classgroup on the one hand and informal urban labourers on the other. The second paper is a monograph titled ‘Building Inclusive Post-colonial UrbanDynamics in a Context of Informalisation: The Case of Commercial Activities in Nairobi’s Eastleigh Neighbourhood’. It considers the urban context of Nairobi’s Eastleigh commercial centre in which two urban communities are analysed: i.e. the Somali entrepreneurial and the Non-Somali informal street vending communities. The analysis examines the methods used by the Somali entrepreneurial community for economic empowerment resulting in the social and spatial transformation of Eastleigh neighbourhood. Additionally, it examines the methods used by the non-Somali street vending community in their contestations for access to trading space in Eastleigh’s commercial centre. The third paper on ‘An Integrated Area Development Strategy for Empowering Communities in Kajiado - Nairobi’s Southern Metropolitan Region’, analyses the specific nature of Kajiado’s unevendevelopment. The paper combines Africa’s economy of affection concept, with the regulationist perspective on uneven development, and the socialinnovation perspective on spatial development. The combined theoreticalperspective is used to analyse the social and spatial processes that are enhancing or obstructing the Maasai community’s capacity for empoweredaction to counter the fragmentation arising from conflicting land-use rationalities in Kajiado. The PhD research finds that the highly uneven social and spatial structures which were established through the introduction of capitalist development during Kenya’s colonial period have been reproduced in post-colonial Kenya. The research further finds that the emerging empowerment processes being put in place by both the regionaland urban communities through their community-based organisations are geared towards the transformation of governance relations in Nairobi’s urban and regional development. Consequently, the research argues that Nairobi is in need of a new, urban and regional development framework whichis integrated and also bottom-linked. The relevance of this approach isnot only limited to its ability to provide insights into processes thatmay facilitate the satisfaction of unmet needs; but also includes its ability to provide insights into processes that enhance the development of inclusive governance dynamics between Nairobi’s diverse urban and regional communities and key development actors.
Table of Contents: Acknowledgements
Abstract
Samenvatting
Contents Table
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations

PART I: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Poverty and Polarisation: Problem Definition
1.1.1. Research Objectives and Questions
1.1.2. Understanding the Dynamics of Polarisation, Inequality, Poverty and Exclusion
1.1.3. Conceptualisations of Poverty and their Implications for Policy in Developing Countries
1.1.4. Development Strategies Addressing Poverty
1.1.5. Linking Poverty Conceptualisations to Implications for Development Strategies and Poverty/Exclusion Analyses
1.2 Case Study Research: Aims, Methodology and Scope
1.2.1 The Nairobi Region: Scope
1.2.2 Methodological Approach
1.3 The Framework for Analysis
1.3.1 Africa‟s Moral Economy/Economy of Affection
1.3.2 Regulation Theory
1.3.3 Social and Spatial Innovation
1.3.4 An Integrated Analytical Framework
1.4 Structure of the Dissertation

PART II: PAPERS FOR PUBLICATION
2. TOWARDS AN ENRICHED REGULATIONIST PERSPECTIVE OF POLARISATION IN KENYA: THE CASE FOR NAIROBI (15,010 Words)
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Analytical Approach
2.1.2 Kenya‟s Capitalist Development
2.1.3 Africa‟s Moral Economy/Economy of Affection
2.1.4 Regulation Theory
2.1.5 Concept of Uneven Regional Development
2.1.6 An Integrated Analytical Framework
2.2 Socio-economic Polarisation and Spatial Segregation in the Kenyan Context
2.2.1 Polarisation during the Pre-colonial Period
2.2.2 Polarisation in Kenya during Colonialism
2.2.3 Polarisation in the Post-Colonial Period
2.3 Production of Nairobi‟s Spatial Structure through Commercial Accumulation including the State‟s and Civil Society‟s Social Regulation
2.3.1 Nairobi‟s Pre-Colonial Territories, Peasant Modes of Production and Small-scale Societies‟ Social Relations
2.3.2 Nairobi‟s Colonial Urban Form, Commercial/Industrial Production and Colonial Urban Society
2.3.3 Nairobi‟s Post-colonial Urban Form, Commercial/Industrial Production and Post-colonial Urban Society
2.3.4 Nairobi‟s Uneven Sectoral Spatial Structure
2.4 Conclusion on the Production of Social Polarisation and Spatial Segregation
2.4.1 Commercial and Industrial Accumulation Reinforcing Unevenness
2.4.2 The Nature of Kenya‟s Social Regulation
2.4.3 Theoretical Reflections

3. BUILDING INCLUSIVE POST-COLONIAL URBAN DYNAMICS IN A CONTEXT OF INFORMALISATION: THE CASE OF COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES IN NAIROBI'S EASTLEIGH NEIGHBOURHOOD (24,700 Words)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Informality and the African City
3.2.1 Capitalist Relations in the Colonial City
3.2.2 Spatial Segregation in the Colonial African Capital City
3.2.3 Informalisation in African Cities
3.3 Analytical Framework
3.3.1 The Economy of Affection Concept
3.3.2 Regulation theory
3.3.3 Social and Spatial Innovation
3.3.4 Analytical Framework
3.4 The Dynamics of Informal Commercial Activities in Nairobi‟s Eastleigh Neighbourhood
3.4.1 Case Study Introduction
3.4.2 Nairobi‟s Historic Development
3.4.3 Social Processes of Eastleigh‟s Urban Communities
3.4.4 Struggle for Empowerment by Eastleigh Street Vendors of Non-Somali Origin (1963-2010s)
3.4.5 Eastleigh‟s Spatial Transformation
3.4.6 Empowerment and Exclusion in Eastleigh‟s Socio-Spatial Transformation
3.5 Conclusions
3.5.1 Importance of Informality in Understanding African Urban Development Processes
3.5.2 Moving Beyond the Formal-Informal Dichotomy
3.5.3 Developing Inclusive, Post-Colonial Urban Development Approaches and Governance Dynamics

4. AN INTEGRATED AREA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR EMPOWERING COMMUNITIES IN KAJIADO - NAIROBI‟S SOUTHERN METROPOLITAN REGION (15,100 words excluding references)
4.1. Introduction
4.2 Analytical Framework
4.2.1 Africa‟s Moral Economy/Economy of Affection
4.2.2 Regulation Theory
4.2.3 Social and Spatial Innovation
4.2.4 An Integrated Analytical Framework
4.3 Socio-Spatial Contestations in Kajiado
4.3.1 Kajiado‟s Historic Uneven Development
4.3.2 Integrated Development Plan Mobilisation by Kajiado Pastoralists Forum (2000s-2010s)
4.4 Analytical Discussion of Kajiado‟s Socio-Spatial transformations
4.5 Conclusion

PART III: GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
5. CONCLUSION
5.1 Discussion of the Research Findings
5.1.1 Kenya‟s Highly Uneven Social and Spatial Structure
5.1.2 The Dynamics of Empowerment and Exclusion in Nairobi‟s Eastleigh Commercial Centre‟s Transformation
5.1.3 A Community-driven Approach for Addressing Polarisation
5.1.4 Methods for Scaling-up Development Strategies Facilitating Bottom-linked, Inclusive, Post-Colonial Development and Governance Dynamics
5.2 Conceptual Contributions to Research on Polarisation and Transformation
5.2.1 The Analytical Framework‟s Relevance to Africa‟s Development and Governance Process
5.2.2 The Role of the Informality Concept in the Analysis of Africa‟s Urban Development and Governance Process
A. Appendix
B. List of publications
ISBN: 978-94-6018-920-3
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Architecture and Society (+)

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