In this dissertation, I have studied the historical fragments of the Peripatetic Dikaiarchos, particularly those on cultural history, music and literature, philosophers and politics. These 'fragments' consist of quotations and paraphrases in later, directly preserved authors (transmitted in manuscripts or papyri). The core of this dissertation is an edition with an English translation and a commentary, which is part of the international research project 'Die Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker Continued. Volume IV: Biography and Antiquarian Literature'. Part I is an elaborate introduction to Dikaiarchos. I first discuss the biographical information on Dikaiarchos and his dates. Then I treat famous men with the same name, focussing on the problem of the grammarian Dikaiarchos of Sparta (often considered a ghost reference in the Suda). The next section on Dikaiarchos' works shows that previous reconstructions are often unlikely. I also argue that the tragic hypotheses are wrongly attributed to Dikaiarchos by several modern scholars. The subsequent section looks at Dikaiarchos' sources, method and approach to history. Dikaiarchos used oral sources, official documents and literary works and travelled for part of his research. In some works, however, the historical accuracy is secondary to his philosophical purpose. Dikaiarchos is a precursor of Hellenistic biography. Although he is not known to have written biographies, he was interested in the lives of philosophers and poets, addressing topics that became standard ingredients in later biographies. The next section of the introduction traces Dikaiarchos' Nachleben, from the Hellenistic to the Byzantine period. Dikaiarchos' work appears to have disappeared gradually. His geographical work soon became obsolete (probably because he was overshadowed by Eratosthenes), whereas his views on the soul were eventually simplified to fit in a doxographical scheme (probably under the influence of Aetios). Porphyry seems to have been the last ancient writer who consulted Dikaiarchos directly. His name disappeared after the sixth century. The ancient judgements are usually positive and show that Dikaiarchos was a respectable authority to cite. Part II presents a critical edition of the historical fragments with an English translation. Especially for papyrus fragments, the edition significantly deviates from previous editors. I have studied the originals under a microscope and have used multispectral photographs. The edition presents the fragments with book title, followed by those without book title and finally the incerta and reiecta. It closes with an appendix of testimonia. Part III contains a lemmatised commentary of the historical fragments. For each fragment, I discuss the context, the scope of the fragment and (if no title is cited) its origin. I also treat parallel or competing traditions and sometimes address text-critical problems when they are relevant for the interpretation. This careful study of each fragment has allowed for a more accurate assessment and reconstruction of Dikaiarchos' work and literary persona.