Induction of unresponsiveness to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) after autocrine TNF expression requires TNF membrane retention
Decoster, E × Vanhaesebroeck, B Boone, E Plaisance, Stéphane De Vos, K Haegeman, G Grooten, J Fiers, W #
Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:273 issue:6 pages:3271-7
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has a specific gene-inducing activity on many cell types and exerts a cytotoxic effect on a number of tumor cell lines. However, several tumor cell types are resistant to TNF-induced effects, and some of these produce TNF. We previously demonstrated that introduction of an exogenous TNF gene in the TNF-sensitive cell line L929sA induced autocrine TNF production and unresponsiveness to the cytotoxic activity of TNF. This resistance required biologically active TNF and was correlated with complete down-modulation of the TNF receptors on the cell surface. We have now characterized this process in more detail. The role of expression of the membrane-bound TNF proform and its subsequent proteolytic processing in the induction of TNF unresponsiveness was investigated. Exchange of the TNF presequence for the signal sequence of interleukin-6 resulted in production of secreted TNF, but not in induction of TNF resistance. On the other hand, expression of non-secretable, membrane-bound TNF generated complete TNF unresponsiveness. To explore whether the requirement for anchoring reflected a specific functional role of the TNF presequence, the latter was replaced by the membrane anchor of trimeric chicken hepatic lectin. Expression of this construct induced complete TNF unresponsiveness. Hence, the role of the TNF presequence in the induction of TNF unresponsiveness only involves its function as a membrane anchor, which permits oligomerization of the TNF molecule into a biologically active homotrimer.