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Title: The impact of PPP and TBLT on Vietnamse students' writing performance and self-regulation
Authors: Phuong, Hoang Yen
Issue Date: 19-Aug-2014
Abstract: While the available research literature appears to support the implementation of task-based language teaching (TBLT) in Western countries, few studies have been conducted to investigate its impact in classroom teaching practice in Asia, especially in comparison with the presentation-practice-production (PPP) approach, which many Asian teachers still favor. The current study explores the differential effects of the PPP approach and a task-based approach on Vietnamese students’ writing performance and self-regulation in writing descriptive and argumentative paragraphs. The study was conducted with 138 students of English Language Studies at a university in Vietnam. Results show that both approaches are effective in enhancing students’ text quality. Salient results of the current study include the following. First, the students in the PPP condition had significantly higher scores than those in the TBLT group on linguistic accuracy in the immediate posttest. Meanwhile, students in the TBLT groups had significantly higher scores than their fellow students on lexical diversity in the immediate posttest. With regard to self-regulation, the students in the TBLT condition had significantly higher scores than those in the PPP condition in the immediate posttest.
Table of Contents: PREFACE ………………………………………………………………… i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………… iii
TABLE OF CONTENT …………………………………………………… v
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ……………………… ix
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………… x
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………… xi
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION ………………………………………… 1
1.1 Vietnamese historical and educational context …… 2
1.2 Vietnamese teaching and learning styles ……………………… 3
1.3 The status of EFL practice in Vietnam ………………… 4
1.4 Recent innovative responses …………………………… 5
1.5 Personal motivations …………………………………… 7
1.6 Research goals ………………………………………… 8
CHAPTER 2 : THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK …………………… 9
2.1 Writing …………………………………………………… 10
2.2 Writing in a second and foreign language versus writing in a first language ……………………………………………… 11
2.3 Teaching writing ……………………………………………… 12
2.3.1 Product approaches …………………………………… 13
2.3.2 Process approaches …………………………………… 14
2.3.4 Genre approaches ……………………………………… 15
2.4 Self-regulated learning and writing …………………………… 17
2.5 Revision ………………………………………………………… 18
2.6 Presentation – Practice – Production ………………………… 19
2.7 Task-based language teaching ………………………………… 21
2.8 Challenges of applying TBLT in Asia ………………………… 25
CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD …………………… 29
3.1 Research questions and hypotheses …………………………… 30
3.2 The institutional context of the study ………………………… 31
3.3 Research participants …………………………………………… 32
3.4 The writing courses …………………………………………… 33
3.4.1 The PPP writing course ……………………………… 34
3.4.2 The TBLT writing course ………………………… 35
3.4.2 Similarities and differences of the PPP and TBLT writing courses ……………………………………… 37
3.5 Measures of writing performance ……………………………… 42
3.6 Measures of self-regulated writing strategies 46
CHAPTER 4 : RESULTS …………………………………………… 55
4.1 Correlation coefficients between measures …………………… 56
4.2 Writing performance development of the PPP and TBLT conditions …………………………………………………………… 58
4.2.1 Writing performance development of the PPP condition 58
4.2.2 Writing performance development of the TBLT condition ……………………………………………… 64
4.3 Differential effect of PPP and TBLT on students’ written output 72
4.4 Changes of students’ self-regulation in the PPP and TBLT conditions …………………………………………………………… 74
4.4.1 Changes of students’ self-regulation in the PPP condition ……………………………………… 74
4.4.1.1 Quantitative data …………………………… 74
4.4.1.2 Qualitative data ………………………… 76
4.4.2 Changes of students’ self-regulation in the TBLT condition …………………………………………………… 79
4.4.2.1 Quantitative data …………………………… 79
4.4.2.2 Qualitative data ……………………………… 81
4.5 Differential effect of PPP and TBLT on students’ self-regulation ……………………………… 85
4.5.1 Quantitative data ………………………………… 85
4.5.2 Qualitative data ………………………………………… 87
CHAPTER 5 : DISCUSSION ……………………………………………… 91
5.1 Students’ development of writing performance ……………… 92
5.1.1 Differences between the PPP and TBLT conditions…… 92
5.1.2 Similarities of the PPP and TBLT conditions ………… 95
5.1.2.1 The teaching conditions ……………… 95
5.1.2.2 The teacher …………………………… 97
5.1.2.3 Chances for revisions ………………………… 97
5.1.2.4 The learners ………………………………… 98
5.2 Students’ changes of self-regulatory writing strategies ………… 98
5.2.1 Changes of the PPP condition ………………………… 98
5.2.2 Changes of the TBLT condition ……………………… 100
5.3 Interaction between writing and self-regulation ……… 102
CHAPTER 6 : CONCLUSION …………………………………………… 105
6.1 Summary of the study ………………………………………… 106
6.2 Pedagogical implications ……………………………………… 107
6.2.1 Writing instruction and evaluation …………………… 107
6.2.2 Improving students’ self-regulation …………………… 109
6.3 Limitations ……………………………………………………… 110
6.4 Directions for further research ………………………………… 112
NEDERLANDSE SAMENVATTING 115
BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………… 119
APPENDICES ……………………………………………………… 139
Appendix 1: Writing task prompts ……………………………… 139
Appendix 2: Sample learning material for the PPP condition … 140
Appendix 3: Task sheets for the TBLT condition ………………… 155
Appendix 4: Examples of a PPP student’s revised texts and teacher’s comments ………………………………………………… 165
Appendix 5: Examples of a TBLT student’s revised texts and teacher’s comments ……………………………………………… 168
Appendix 6: Grading rubrics for structural features ……… 172
Appendix 7: Grading rubrics for communicative effectiveness …… 174
Appendix 8: Questionnaire on self-regulatory writing strategies 178
Appendix 9: Guide for focus group interview …………………… 180
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Language and Education, Leuven - miscellaneous
Language and Education, Campus Brussels
Linguistics Research Unit - miscellaneous

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