Computers and Electronics in Agriculture vol:106 pages:1-10
This paper presents the nonlinear modeling of the yaw and longitudinal dynamics of a tractor–trailer system. First, the yaw dynamic models of both the tractor and trailer are derived considering the lateral forces and side-slip angles. In order to be able to calculate the side-slips precisely, the relaxation length approach is preferred. Since the obtained yaw dynamic models are nonlinear, a constrained nonlinear optimization problem is formulated for the parameter estimation. Second, the longitudinal dynamic model for the system is derived based-on the static and dynamic responses. The static model consist of two inputs, the hydrostat position and the diesel engine speed, and one output, the longitudinal speed of the system. Afterwards, a dynamic model is proposed to define the dynamic effect between the output of the static model and the actual longitudinal speed. Third, the mathematical models of the steering mechanisms both for the tractor and trailer are identified. Consequently, a complete nonlinear dynamic model for the tractor–trailer system is obtained. The overall resulting model is thought to provide useful physical insight on such a complex mechatronic system, and can serve as the input for model based controller design.