Title: Gezondheidseffecten van nanopartikels gebruikt in verven en coatings
Other Titles: Health effects of nanopartikels used in paints and coatings
Authors: Smulders, Stijn
Issue Date: 9-Jul-2014
Abstract: <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US">IntroductionThe last decade, the paint and coating industry is developing strategies to create a new generation of paint formulations. The use of nanoparticles has led to the development of paints with improved antimicrobial properties, durability, fire resistance and self-cleaning characteristics. Due to these beneficial effects, the paint and coating industry has become one of the largest users of nanoparticles and its use will still increase in the near future. During application and wearing off of the coating, exposure to nanoparticles cannot be excluded and attention must be paid to their potential negative health effects. Because nanoparticles possess novel properties, biokinetics and unusual bioactivity, their biological effects are likely to be different compared to larger (non-nanoscale) particles.<p class="2titel" style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:left;line-height:normal" align="left">Objectives<span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US">The objectives of this research project were to determine:<span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US"><p class="2titel" style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:left;line-height:normal" align="left"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US"><p class="2titel" style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:left;line-height:normal" align="left"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri" lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal">1. A convenient in vitro test method to detect endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples.<span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri" lang="EN-US">2. The toxic effects of nanoparticles embedded in a paint matrix compared to pristine nanoparticles.<span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri" lang="EN-US">3. the immunomodulatory effects of nanoparticles.<span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri" lang="EN-US">4. the biodistribution of nanoparticles embedded in paints and pristine nanoparticles.<span style="font-size:1.0pt;font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US"> <p class="2titel" style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:left;line-height:normal" align="left"><span style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal">Results<span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US">We performed a very detailed study testing a range of different limulous amoebocyte lysate (<span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US">LAL) assays including gel clot and chromogenic-based LAL assays, and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR)4 reporter cells. We demonstrated that nanoparticles have the potential to interfere with the gel clot LAL assay and the endotoxin extraction protocol. We validated TLR4 reporter cells as a convenient and less expensive alternative for the commonly used LAL assay. None of the pristine nanoparticles and paint particles used in this research project were significant contaminated with endotoxin. <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US">We studied the toxic effects of pristine nanoparticles (TiO2, Ag and SiO2) and aged paints with and without nanoparticles both <span style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal">in vitro as in vivo. Two of the three pristine nanoparticles (TiO2 and Ag) showed some cytotoxic effects at relative high doses using a biculture consisting of human bronchial epithelial cells and human monocytic cells, while all aged paints with nanoparticles and pristine SiO2 nanoparticles did not. After pulmonary exposure of mice to the different particles, the pristine Ag nanoparticles showed the most pronounced response (increase in neutrophils, pro-inflammatory cytokines KC and IL-1ß), while the other pristine nanoparticles (TiO2 and SiO2) showed only a subtle toxic effect in the lungs. The paints containing nanoparticles did not show significant toxicity. Our results suggest that addition of nanoparticles (TiO2, Ag and SiO2) to paints and coatings do not pose an additional hazard for human health. <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-GB">We studied the immunomodulatory effects of pristine nanoparticles and aged paint particles containing nanoparticles on the dermal sensitization process of the strong sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US">We found that pristine TiO2 nanoparticles aggravate the dermal sensitization both after subcutaneous injection and topical exposure; the most pronounced effect was observed after subcutaneous injection. Furthermore, analysis of the cytokine secretion profile of the draining lymph nodes showed a Th2 favoured immune response (increase IL-4, decrease IL-10). This indicates the potential immunomodulatory effects of nanoparticles. In contrast to TiO2 nanoparticles, Ag and SiO2 nanoparticles and aged paint particles containing nanoparticles showed no aggravating effects on the dermal sensitization. <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-GB">We studied the biodistribution of nanoparticles embedded in paints and pristine nanoparticles. In a first series of experiments, the particles (pristine nanoparticles and aged paint particles) were dosed in a multiple exposure regime (5 lung exposures during one month) and metal concentrations in different organs were measured. The pristine Ag nanoparticles showed distribution outside the lung to liver, spleen and kidney, while the SiO2 nanoparticles showed extrapulmonary distribution to the liver. No extrapulmonary distribution was found in case of the TiO2 nanoparticles. Regarding the aged paints containing nanoparticles, only distribution of TiO2 outside the lung to the liver was observed in animals exposed to TiO2-containing paints. The other aged paints containing Ag and SiO2 nanoparticles showed no extrapulmonary distribution. In a second series of experiment, we focused on the long-term body distribution of one nanoparticle in particular: namely SiO2 nanoparticles. Mice were exposed by intravenous injection or intratracheal instillation to SiO2-Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles in a single exposure protocol and were followed up to 84 days. We demonstrated, using three different techniques, that intravenously administered SiO2 nanoparticles mainly accumulate in the liver and are retained in this tissue for over 84 days. No distribution to extrapulmonary organs was observed after intratracheal instillation. These study calls for a focus on the liver for further toxicity research. <p class="2titel" style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:left;line-height:normal" align="left"><span style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal"><span style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal">Conclusion<span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US">The results help to fill some knowledge gaps and form an added value to the existing literature in the field of nanotoxicology. We hope this work is a step towards the safe design and development of new materials and consumer goods containing nanotechnology in the future.<i style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-language:NL-BE" lang="EN-US"><w:latentstyles deflockedstate="false" defunhidewhenused="true"  <w:lsdexception="" locked="false" priority="0" semihidden="false"  
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Environment and Health - miscellaneous

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