Handbook of Recycling – state-of-the-art for practitioners, analysts, and scientists pages:511-519
Over the past 10 years, the focus in waste management has shifted from solving environmental impacts of waste disposal to managing materials’ cycles in a sustainable way. Recycling materials from waste streams plays an
important role in the new paradigm of sustainable materials’ management and resource efﬁciency. In particular, it is argued that recycled materials can substitute for the extraction of exhaustible resources, thereby alleviating
problems like materials’ scarcity and dependency. In addition, they can reduce environmental impacts related to mining, processing and production of virgin materials (Damgaard et al., 2009; European Commission, 2011; Acuff
and Kafﬁne, 2013). This chapter will focus on economic drivers and impediments to recycling. In particular we will discuss how recycling incentives of consumers and producers
are affected by policy instruments like recycled content standards, taxes on virgin materials, waste disposal fees, recycling subsidy mechanisms, extended producer responsibility (EPR or deposit-refund in the sequel) and recycling certiﬁcates schemes.