ITEM METADATA RECORD
Title: Sustainable Materialisation of Residues from Thermal Processes into Construction Materials (Duurzame valorisatie van residu's van thermische processen tot bouwmaterialen)
Other Titles: Sustainable Materialisation of Residues from Thermal Processes into Construction Materials
Authors: Salman, Muhammad; S0223989
Issue Date: 2-Jul-2014
Abstract: The amount of slag generated is almost a
third of the total stainless steel produced. Owing to its mineralogy, a large part
of the slag is produced as fines, which has a very low valorisation potential
and has to be landfilled. The present work is aimed at exploring the potential
of these slags to produce construction materials of higher economic value.

To address the issue, two valorisation
routes were applied: 1) alkali-activation– initiating binding reactions in the
slag by the addition of alkali hydroxides and silicates, 2) carbonation –
initiating hardening reaction in the slagby the formation of alkali
carbonates. Two stainless steel slags, continuous casting (CtCs) slag and Argon
oxygen decarburisation (AOD) slag, were targeted for valorisation.

Initiation of hardening reactions in the
slag was found to occur only under a combined treatment of alkali (Na and K)
hydroxides and high temperature (80 °C) whichwas provided by steam curing. However,
only a moderate strength in the mortar specimens was observed under such
conditions along with appearance of efflorescence with NaOH for molarities
above 5 M. The problem of low strength and efflorescence in the mortar samples
was eliminated by the introduction of silicates in the system along with the
alkali hydroxides. The compressive strength of the slag mortars was foundto
increase with the increase in the amount of silicates in the activating
solution and with the increase of the curing temperature. The reaction product
from the activation was found to be C-S-H as confirmed by thermogravimetric,
QXRD, FTIR and 29Si NMR analysis.

The slag was also found to develop strength
under acceleration carbonation conditions which was provided under two environments:
i) in a carbonation chamber, maintained at atmospheric pressure, 22 °C, 5 vol.%
CO2 and 80% RH; and ii) in a carbonation reactor, where the CO2
partial pressure (pCO2)
and temperature could be further increased. It was found that in the
carbonation chamber the compressive strength of the samples and the CO2
sequestration continuedto increase up to 3 weeks whereas in the reactor the
optimum for strength and CO2 sequestration was found at 80 °C, 8 bar
pressure in 2.5h. The major reaction product was found to be calcite in
different morphologies.

Three types of masonry blocks were prepared
form the slag with the two valorisation routes: alkali-activated solid bricks,
perforated carbonated bricks and alkali-activated aerated bricks. The
carbonated bricks were found to have the best resistance to freeze-thaw,
whereas the aerated bricks were found to have superior thermal resistivity values.
The LCA showed that the environmental impact of the bricks is lower (negative
for carbonated bricks) than the conventional clay fired bricks and the impact
of the aerated bricks was found to be similar to the conventional aerated
blocks available in the market. A SWOT
analysis highlighted the advantage of usingthese bricks in the form of lower
energy requirement in its production, reduction of stress on the use of prime materials
and ease of metal recovery from the residual slag.

The results of the dissertation show that the
binding potential of the stainless steel slags can be exploited as valorised
applications in the construction industryby novel thermo-alkali activation and
carbonation processes.



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ISBN: 978-94-6018-860-2
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Building Materials and Building Technology Section
Sustainable Metals Processing and Recycling

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