A series of scholarly papers in relation to islamic thinking, activism, and politics in both the West and the Middle East. The reader will apprehend that Islam is not the monolitic religion so often depicted in the media or (earlier) in the academic world. The Islamic world is more than a uniform civilization with a set of petrified religious prescriptions and an outdated view on political and social organization. The contributions show the dynamics of 'Islam at work' in different geographical and social contexts. By treating the working of Islamic thinking and of Islamic activism on a practical level, the book includes innovative research and fills a significant gap in existing work.