Two Azospirillum brasilense loci that correct Rhizobium meliloti exoB and exoC mutants for exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis have been identified previously (K. W. Michiels, J. Vanderleyden, A. P. Van Gool, E. R. Signer, J. Bacteriol., 1988b). A. brasilense exo mutants produce EPS of lower molecular weight than the wild type strain. Here, we show by hybridization that these exo loci are located on a 90-MDa plasmid in A. brasilense Sp7. In four other Azospirillum strains but not in A. lipoferum SpBr17, the loci are likewise located on a plasmid of approximately the same size. Transposon Tn5 insertions in these loci were isolated and mapped on the cloned DNA by restriction analysis. Hybridization of restriction digests of purified 90-MDa plasmid DNA with probes containing the exo loci confirmed their plasmid location. This is the first report on plasmid localization of genes in Azospirillum.