Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:262 issue:4 pages:1596-1601
Carbohydrate binding properties of a new plant lectin isolated from elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) (SNA) bark were studied using the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition, and equilibrium dialysis. Purified SNA precipitates highly sialylated glycoproteins such as fetuin, orosomucoid, and ovine submaxillary mucin, but not their asialo derivatives. Hapten inhibition experiments showed that both D-Gal and D-GalNAc are weak inhibitors of SNA-glycophorin precipitation, but neither New5Ac nor Neu5Gc is an inhibitor. A series of oligosaccharides which contain the terminal Neu5Ac(alpha 2-6)Gal sequence showed an extremely high inhibitory potency (1,600-10,000 times more inhibitory than Gal). On the other hand, oligosaccharides with the Neu5Ac(alpha 2-3)Gal linkage were only 30-80 times more inhibitory than Gal, thus showing a marked preference for the 2,6-linked isomer. Hapten inhibition with Gal and its epimers suggested that the equatorial OH at C-3 and the axial OH at C-4 of the D-pyranose ring are strict requirements for binding. Conversion of the Neu5Ac residue to its 7-carbon analogue by selective periodate oxidation of its glyceryl side chain, followed by NaBH4 reduction, completely destroyed the ability of fetuin and orosomucoid to precipitate with SNA. Moreover, the same treatment of Neu5Ac(alpha 2-3)lactitol also abolished its ability to inhibit the precipitation reaction, suggesting that the glyceryl side chain of NBu5Ac (especially the C-8 and/or C-9 portion) is an important determinant for SNA. The increased inhibitory potency of various glycosides with beta-linked nonpolar aglycons suggested the presence of a hydrophibic interacting region adjacent to the carbohydrate binding site. The results of equilibrium dialysis using [3H] Neu5Ac(alpha 2-6)lactitol as ligand showed the presence of two equivalent, noninteracting carbohydrate binding sites in this tetrameric glycoprotein lectin (Ka = 3.9 X 10(5) M-1).