Title: Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Connected with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis and Raman Techniques to Study ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium Silicate Cements in Wet Conditions and in Real Time
Authors: Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna ×
Van Landuyt, Kirsten
Taddei, Paola
Modena, Enrico
Van Meerbeek, Bart
Prati, Carlo #
Issue Date: May-2010
Publisher: American Association of Endodontists
Series Title: Journal of endodontics vol:36 issue:5 pages:851-857
Article number: 10.1016/j.joen.2009.12.007
Abstract: Introduction: Pro Root mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium silicate cements are able to set in a moist environment. The aim of the study was to examine the surface structure and composition of a cement paste under wet conditions and in real time during setting by environmental scanning electron microscopy connected with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (ESEM-EDX) and micro-Raman techniques. Methods: White Pro Root MTA and experimental white tetrasilicate cement (wTC) and wTC containing bismuth oxide (wTC-Bi) were studied. Cement disks were analyzed 10 minutes after powder-liquid mixing (freshly prepared samples) and after immersion in Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C for 24 hours (24-hour-aged samples). Results: Freshly prepared wet cements at ESEM-EDX exposed an irregular surface (displaying calcium, silicon, aluminum, chlorine reflexes, and bismuth traces in MTA and wTC-Bi) with needle-like and cubic-hexagonal shaped crystals. Aggregates of spheroidal Ca-P-rich crystals (spherulites) appeared on the surface of 24-hour-aged samples. The starting unhydrated powders displayed the typical Raman bands of Portland cement components: alite, belite, and calcium sulfate (only as anhydrite in MTA and as both anhydrite and gypsum in wTC and wTC-Bi). MTA powder showed higher amount of calcium carbonate and lower quantities of anhydrite and higher crystallinity of the silicate component, leading to a slower hydration reaction. Products/markers of hydration reactions were present on fresh samples; ettringite formed on the surface of all the cements; calcium hydroxide (portlandite) was detected only on the surface of wTC, but no conclusion can be drawn on wTC-Bi and MTA because of the interference of bismuth oxide. Calcium phosphate and calcite/aragonite bands were detected on all 24-hour-aged cements; portlandite was no longer detected on wTC. Conclusions: ESEM and micro-Raman are powerful and suitable techniques to investigate endodontic calcium silicate hydrated cements in real time and in their humid state without inducing artifacts by sample preparation. The formation of apatite spherulites on calcium silicate cements might have clinical relevance. (J Endod 2010;36:851-857)
ISSN: 0099-2399
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Biomaterials - BIOMAT
Clinical Residents Dentistry
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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