DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder: In search of essential behaviours for diagnosis
Carrington, Sarah × Kent, Rachel Maljaars, Jarymke Le Couteur, Ann Gould, Judith Wing, Lorna Noens, Ilse Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina Leekam, Susan #
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders vol:8 pages:701-715
The objective of this study was to identify a set of 'essential' behaviours sufficient for diagnosis of DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Highly discriminating, 'essential' behaviours were identified from the published DSM-5 algorithm developed for the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). Study 1 identified a reduced item set (48 items) with good predictive validity (as measured using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves) that represented all symptom sub-domains described in the DSM-5 ASD criteria but lacked sensitivity for individuals with higher ability. An adjusted essential item set (54 items; Study 2) had good sensitivity when applied to individuals with higher ability and performance was comparable to the published full DISCO DSM-5 algorithm. Investigation at the item level revealed that the most highly discriminating items predominantly measured social-communication behaviours. This work represents a first attempt to derive a reduced set of behaviours for DSM-5 directly from an existing standardized ASD developmental history interview and has implications for the use of DSM-5 criteria for clinical and research practice.