The influence of ultrasonic frequency and intensity on particle shape, tap density and particle size distribution was investigated during the precipitation of manganese carbonate. For the first time, a broad frequency range of 94 till 1135 kHz was studied in one single reactor setup.
Smaller and more spherical particles were observed during sonication compared to silent conditions. Lower frequencies and increased intensities result in smaller and more spherical particles. The most spherical particles with superior tap densities are obtained at the lowest
frequency and most elevated intensity. Moreover, the results indicate that a particle size threshold exists, below which the particle size cannot be reduced by a further increase of the ultrasonic intensity or reduction of the frequency. Sonication of already formed spherical
powders resulted in particles with smaller sizes but unaffected shapes. Finally, one test with pulsed ultrasonic irradiation resulted in equally sized particles with similar sphericity as the ones produced under continuous sonication.