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Title: Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools and techniques
Authors: Put, St├ęphanie ×
Westhovens, Rene
Lahoutte, Tony
Matthys, Patrick #
Issue Date: Apr-2014
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Series Title: Arthritis Research & Therapy vol:16 issue:2 pages:1-14
Article number: 25099015
Abstract: Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor κB and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, αVβ3 integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein.
URI: 
ISSN: 1478-6354
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Laboratory of Immunobiology (Rega Institute)
Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center (+)
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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