How to understand Europe's post-migrant Islam on the one hand and indigenous, anti-Islamic movements on the other? What impact will religion have on the European secular world and its regulation? The new European multiculturalism calls into question the nature of boundaries between various ethnic-religious communities. Although the contributions in this volume focus on Islam, ample attention is also paid to Christianity, Jusaism, and Hinduism. The authors present empirical data from cases in Turlkey, Germany, France, Spain, the U.K., Poland, Norway, Sweden, and Belgium, and sharpen the perspectives on the religious-ethnic manifestations of identity in the transnational context of 21st-century Europe.