The term participation is used regularly in the context of new-media and innovation studies. This form of participation is often no more than simple interaction with participants or making use of questionnaires. A recent generation of designers and artists notice an increasing desire for real cooperation. However, setting up projects in a participatory way is (often) not part of their skills. This book describes the negotiations that designers and artists engage in when setting up participatory projects with both familiar and strange, public and private, professional, amateur and other participants. These negotiations are defined as risky trade-offs, since 'risky' reflects the artists, designers and participants experience of uncertainty in participatory contexts. Based on case studies of real-life participatory projects and a review of the literature, this book offers insight in risky trade-offs in both a hands-on and reflective way.