Although peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in all animal species, their importance for the functioning of tissues and organs remains largely unresolved. Because peroxins are essential for the biogenesis of peroxisomes, an obvious approach to investigate their physiological role is to inactivate a Pex gene or to suppress its translation. This has been performed in mice but also in more primitive organisms including D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and D. rerio, and the major findings and abnormalities in these models will be highlighted. Although peroxisomes are generally not essential for embryonic development and organogenesis, a generalized inactivity of peroxisomes affects lifespan and posthatching/postnatal growth, proving that peroxisomal metabolism is necessary for the normal maturation of these organisms. Strikingly, despite the wide variety of model organisms, corresponding tissues are affected including the central nervous system and the testis. By inactivating peroxisomes in a cell type selective way in the brain of mice, it was also demonstrated that peroxisomes are necessary to prevent neurodegeneration. As these peroxisome deficient model organisms recapitulate pathologies of patients affected with peroxisomal diseases, their further analysis will contribute to the elucidation of still elusive pathogenic mechanisms.