Music-csr: Hyperspectral unmixing via multiple signal classification and collaborative sparse regression
Iordache, Marian-Daniel × Bioucas-Dias, Jose Plaza, Antonio Somers, Ben #
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing vol:52 issue:7 pages:4364-4382
Spectral unmixing aims at finding the spectrally pure constituent materials (also called endmembers) and their respective fractional abundances in each pixel of a hyperspectral image scene. In recent years, sparse unmixing has been widely used as a reliable spectral unmixing methodology. In this approach, the observed spectral vectors are expressed as linear combinations of spectral signatures assumed to be known a priori and presented in a large collection, termed spectral library or dictionary, usually acquired in laboratory. Sparse unmixing has attracted much attention as it sidesteps two common limitations of classic spectral unmixing approaches, namely, the lack of pure pixels in hyperspectral scenes and the need to estimate the number of endmembers in a given scene, which are very difficult tasks. However, the high mutual coherence of spectral libraries, jointly with their ever-growing dimensionality, strongly limits the operational applicability of sparse unmixing. In this paper, we introduce a two-step algorithm aimed at mitigating the aforementioned limitations. The algorithm exploits the usual low dimensionality of the hyperspectral data sets. The first step, which is similar to the multiple signal classification array signal processing algorithm, identifies a subset of the library elements, which contains the endmember signatures. Because this subset has cardinality much smaller than the initial number of library elements, the sparse regression we are led to is much more well conditioned than the initial one using the complete library. The second step applies collaborative sparse regression, which is a form of structured sparse regression, exploiting the fact that only a few spectral signatures in the library are active. The effectiveness of the proposed approach, termed MUSIC-CSR, is extensively validated using both simulated and real hyperspectral data sets.