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Title: The effect of cupric ion concentration on the nucleation and growth of copper on RuTa seeded substrates
Authors: Nagar, M
Radisic, A
Strubbe, K
Vereecken, Philippe # ×
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Elsevier
Series Title: Electrochimica Acta vol:92 pages:474-483
Abstract: The electrochemical nucleation and growth of copper on a ruthenium–tantalum (RuTa) alloy from acid
copper sulfate solutions has been studied. The mechanism of copper nucleation and growth during
galvanostatic deposition was investigated as a function of cupric ion concentration, [Cu2+], and deposition
current density. The island density (Np) increased significantly when lowering [Cu2+] while keeping the
other parameters constant. An increase in the deposition current density resulted in higher island density
up to a certain limit where no significant change in the Np was observed. Both effects are explained by a
direct correlation between the island density and the copper deposition overpotential (). It is concluded
that the use of low copper concentration baths could be beneficial for direct plating of small features for
future interconnect metallization schemes.
ISSN: 0013-4686
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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