Renal CD133(+)/CD73(+) progenitors produce erythropoietin under hypoxia and prolyl hydroxylase inhibition
Bussolati, Benedetta × Lauritano, Carola Moggio, Aldo Collino, Federica Mazzone, Max Camussi, Giovanni #
Williams & Wilkins
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology vol:24 issue:8 pages:1234-41
The identity of the peritubular population of cells with mesenchymal phenotype thought responsible for producing erythropoietin in humans remains unclear. Here, renal CD133(+)/CD73(+) progenitor cells, isolated from the human renal inner medulla and described as a population of mesenchymal progenitors, released erythropoietin under hypoxic conditions. CD133(-) cells did not synthesize erythropoietin, and CD133(+) progenitor cells stopped producing erythropoietin when they differentiated and acquired an epithelial phenotype. Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases, using either dimethyloxalylglycine or a small hairpin RNA against prolyl hydroxylase-2, increased both hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) expression and erythropoietin transcription. Moreover, under hypoxic conditions, inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase significantly increased erythropoietin release by CD133(+) progenitors. Finally, blockade of HIF-2α impaired erythropoietin synthesis by CD133(+) progenitors. Taken together, these results suggest that it is the renal CD133(+) progenitor cells that synthesize and release erythropoietin under hypoxia, via the prolyl hydroxylase-HIF-2α axis, in the human kidney. In addition, this study provides rationale for the therapeutic use of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors in the setting of acute or chronic renal injury.