Published on behalf of the Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology by Elsevier Applied Science
Food Research International vol:55 pages:271-280
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of flow conditions during the stomach phase of a simple in vitro digestion procedure on the microstructural properties and the β-carotene bioaccessibility of carrotbased model food systems containing oil and different barriers for β-carotene bioaccessibility. A ‘periodic forces’ stomach model, in which the flow characteristics (measured by Particle Image Velocimetry) corresponded well with experimental in vivo and in silico literature data,was successfully developed and implemented and used in a two-step static in vitro digestion procedure. This stomach model was compared with a conventional end-overend rotation stomach model in which flow conditions were uncontrolled. Both models in combination with an end-over-end intestinal phase revealed differences in β-carotene bioaccessibility of carrot-based fractions due to the presence of different barriers (the plant chromoplast structure and/or the cell wall). Absolute β-carotene bioaccessibility values however differed between the models. The periodic forces stomach flow behavior lowered the β-carotene bioaccessibility in the β-carotene-enriched emulsion (72% versus 45%), the chromoplast fraction (66% versus 36%) and the large cell cluster fraction (22% versus 13%). The model also resulted in the presence of clusters of small oil droplets interspersed by surface-active compounds while large, coalesced oil droplets (D(v;0.9) of 189 μm) were observed after digestion in the end-over-end stomach model. As a consequence of the periodic forces stomach flow behavior also a slightly higher disintegration of carrot particles (to aD(v;0.9)of 450 μminstead of 492 μm) was observed which was however not linked to a higher β-carotene ioaccessibility in carrot cell clusters.