This article analyzes the literature on procedural models of European Union (EU) politics. We present an overview of the main models of the legislative procedures, with a focus on their relevance to EU politics and the literature today. We discuss early controversies in the literature, and examine the empirical research that tested the models. Furthermore, we consider models of other aspects of policy-making in the EU. Finally, we discuss the literature’s main contributions and principal shortcomings, and formulate suggestions for improvement. We argue that the models contribute greatly to our understanding of EU politics, offer clear predictions regarding policies, institutions’ powers and the extent of gridlock, and have sparked extensive empirical research. The models of consultation and codecision can serve as standard models of unicameral legislatures with an agenda setter, and bicameral legislatures with bargaining between the two chambers, respectively. Moreover, they contribute to the study of the implications of institutional reform.