Recurrence of glomerulonephritis following renal transplantation is considered an important cause of allograft failure. The incidence of recurrence of glomerulonephritis varies widely depending on the definition of recurrence (pathologic recurrence or clinicopathologic recurrence) and the original glomerular disease. Moreover the impact of recurrence of glomerular disease on allograft outcome varies widely between different forms of glomerulonephritis. Whereas IgA nephritis recurs in up to one third of transplanted patients, this is not associated with adverse effects on graft survival. In contrast, recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranoproliferative glomerulopathy have an unfavorable prognosis. Overall, long-term graft survival in patients transplanted for glomerulonephritis is comparable to survival in patients with other causes of ESRD. In recent years, several mechanisms for recurrent disease after transplantation (e.g. PLA2R antibodies in membranous nephropathy and suPAR in FSGS) have been identified, and these findings have helped to elucidate the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases. Although renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease as a consequence of glomerulonephritis, further studies are required to develop optimal strategies to prevent, diagnose and treat recurrent glomerular diseases.