In this paper we investigate the impact of gender stratification on the gender gap in both medicalisation attitudes and professional health care use. Furthermore, we examine to what extent medicalisation attitudes explain the gender gap in professional health care use. Using data from the second wave of the European Social Survey (N = 42028), we find that women report more positive attitudes towards medicalisation than men, explaining a small part of the gender gap in professional health care use. No association was observed between gender stratification and the gender gap in medicalisation attitudes or health care use. However, respondents living in societies characterized by a lower level of gender stratification, position themselves more independently towards physicians, while they use professional health care more frequently.