Title: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Wearable Textile Antennas (Numeriek en experimenteel onderzoek van draagbare textiel antennas)
Other Titles: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Wearable Textile Antennas
Authors: Soh, Ping Jack
Issue Date: 29-Nov-2013
Abstract: In recent years, body-centric wireless communication has become an important part of mobile communication systems. One of the dominant research topics in antennas for body-centric wireless communications is realizing practical, wearable, fabric-based antennas. The introduction of various wearable textile or flexible radiators will then facilitate the realization of fully wearable electronic systems. They are required to be light weight, low cost, almost maintenance free, with negligible installation effort. Specialized occupation segments which find such body-centric communication useful are paramedics, fire fighters, the military, etc. Besides, wearable antennas also can be applied to youngsters, the aged, and athletes for the purpose of monitoring and entertainment. However, the human body itself poses a serious fundamental challenge to the realization of such systems, mainly due to the electromagnetic interaction with radiators placed in its proximity. Thus, antenna performance in terms of reflection and radiation is expected to be severely influenced during on-body deployment. The main objective of this thesis is to design and characterize textile antennas for on body operation. Throughout the course of this work, various design issues and limitations are properly analyzed and systematically solved, mostly through the adaptation of existing processes and/or procedures used for conventional antennas. Several concrete state-of-the-art textile antenna topologies have been designed, prototyped, and measured for operation in various communication frequency bands. Besides being designed to suit the textile material requirements, one of the main features of these antennas is the existence of their rear ground planes. Through the on-body evaluations performed, it is evident that this antenna property provides sufficient shielding against serious performance deterioration when worn on body. A pioneering work on worn efficiency evaluation has also been completed within this research, and measurements were performed in a reverberation chamber on a real human volunteer. Prior to the application of these textile antennas, a comprehensive safety evaluation was performed. The textile antennas were evaluated in terms of Specific Absorption Rate via simulations and measurements, indicating levels well below the ETSI requirements. Finally, the textile antennas were put into application, i.e. in a remote health monitoring system. This wearable smart antenna array successfully combines the direction-of-arrival and beamforming capabilities when operating on body.
Table of Contents: Foreword
Table of Contents
List of Acronyms
List of Symbols

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Wearable Textile and Flexible Antennas
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Motivation and Scope of Work
1.4 Background and Literature Review
1.4.1 Broadband Wearable Antennas
1.4.2 Dual-band Wearable Antennas
1.4.3 Ultra Wideband Wearable Antennas
1.5 Content of the Thesis

Chapter 2 Textile Materials, Antenna Fabrication and Evaluation Methods
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Conductive and Non-conductive Textiles
2.2.1 Conductive Textiles
2.2.2 Non-Conductive Textiles
2.3 Antenna Fabrication Procedure
2.4 Antenna Evaluation Methods
2.4.1 Numerical Simulations
2.4.2 Free Space Antenna Evaluation
2.4.3 On Body Antenna Evaluation
2.4.4 Antenna Efficiency Evaluation
2.4.5 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
2.5 Conclusion

Chapter 3 Broadband Textile Antennas
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Broadband Fractal Antenna
3.2.1 General PIFA Design Procedure
3.2.2 Simulation Results: Material Parameters
3.2.3 Simulation Results: Plain PIFA
3.2.4 Simulation Results: Slotted PIFA
3.2.5 Measurement Results: Free Space
3.2.6 Measurement Results: On Body
3.3 Broadband Fractal Antenna
3.3.1 Antenna Design and Structure
3.3.2 Simulation Results
3.3.3 Measurement Results
3.4 Conclusion

Chapter 4 Dual Band Textile Antennas
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Dual Band Fractal PIFA
4.2.1 Design Procedure
4.2.2 Simulation Results
4.2.3 Measurement Results: Free Space
4.2.4 Measurement Results: On Body
4.3 Suspended-plate Dual Band Antenna
4.3.1 Design Procedure
4.3.2 Simulation and Measurement Results
4.3.3 Bending and On Body Evaluations
4.4 Conclusion

Chapter 5 Ultra Wideband (UWB) Wearable Antennas
5.1 Introduction
5.2 CPW-fed UWB Antenna
5.2.1 Antenna Design and Structure
5.2.2 Simulation Results
5.2.3 Measurement Results
5.3 Microstrip-based UWB Antenna
5.3.1 Antenna Design and Simulation Results
5.3.2 Measurement Results
5.4 Conclusion

Chapter 6 Textile Antennas Efficiency Evaluation
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Broadband PIFA
6.2.1 On Body 0 mm Proximity Measurements
6.2.2 On Body 20 mm Proximity Measurements
6.3 Dual-Band PIFA
6.3.1 Copper Tape Based PIFA (FCTP3)
6.3.2 ShieldIt Based Textile PIFA (FSHP6)
6.4 Simulated Validations
6.4.1 Broadband PIFAs (SHSL and FLSL)
6.4.2 Dual-Band PIFAs (FCTP3 and FSHP6)
6.5 Measurement Uncertainty
6.6 Conclusion

Chapter 7 Antennas for Biomedical Monitoring System
7.1 Introduction
7.2 On-Body Smart Wearable Textile Antenna System
7.2.1 System Overview
7.2.2 Antenna and Component Design
7.2.3 Experimental Evaluation
7.2.4 Beamforming System Validation
7.3 Radar Antenna for a Biomedical Monitoring System
7.3.1 System Overview
7.3.2 Antenna Requirements
7.3.3 Antenna Design and Evaluation
7.3.4 Radar Validation
7.4 Conclusion

Chapter 8 Conclusion
8.1 Future Research

List of Publications
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:ESAT- TELEMIC, Telecommunications and Microwaves

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