Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology vol:13 issue:3 pages:411-423
Redundant information has been found to be an important factor that can limit or enhance learning with multiple external representations (MER). As such, it is seen as a crucial factor in understanding how MER can help increase conceptual understanding with low prior knowledge learners, especially when these representations are presented in a sequence. In this study, multiple levels of redundant information are compared with each other to understand how redundancy determines learning with MER when these MER are sequenced. Ninety-two participants, undergraduates in education (age: M = 19.92 years, SD = 2.78 years), with low prior knowledge of the subject of chemistry participated in pretest-intervention-posttest randomized design to study texts and pictorial representations in a sequence. More specifically, we compared (a) 0% redundancy in MER, (b) 25% redundancy, (c) 50% redundancy, and (d) 100% redundancy. Results indicate that partial redundant information leads to the largest increase in understanding and ideas remembered.