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Title: Sustainable Management of Solid Waste in Medium-Sized Urban Centers in East Africa: A Case Study in Jimma (Ethiopia) (Duurzaam beheer van vast afval in middelgrote stadscentra in Oost-Afrika: Jimma (Ethiopië) als gevalstudie)
Other Titles: Sustainable Management of Solid Waste in Medium-Sized Urban Centers in East Africa: A Case Study in Jimma (Ethiopia)
Authors: Edesa, Tadesse Getahun; S0222289
Issue Date: 9-Sep-2013
Abstract: One aspect of urban growth posing a threat on sustainable development is poor solid waste management. The increasing amount of waste generated by rapid urbanization in developing countries is usually not properly managed and results in environmental pollution. The city of Jimma, Ethiopia, has been taken as an example in this dissertation; according to the literature, municipal solid waste management is also a major problem in other cities of east Africa.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quantity, composition, sources of waste generated, and current disposal practices, and to investigate and recommend appropriate management technologies. The total waste generated daily in Jimma city is currently ca. 88,000 kg, of which 54% by weight constitutes biodegradable waste, and 46% is non-recyclable waste. Only 25% of the community currentlyuses municipal containers for disposal at the selected landfill site. 51% of the households dispose their waste in individually chosen spots, 22% use open burning and 2% of households use private waste collectors. Asocio-economic analysis shows that higher family income and educationalstatus is associated with private or municipal waste collection and less with the application of back yard or open dumping. These insights intowaste generation and management practices in Jimma city allow making suggestions for improved collection, treatment and disposal methods. The most important conclusion is that the biodegradable waste is a major fraction of the waste, having suitable properties for valorization. An economic benefit can be obtained from this waste, at the same time avoiding the need for disposal. Two forms of valorization have been studied: composting and biogas production.Most attention has been given to composting. The effect on physical, chemical and biological properties of municipal solid waste compost of turning frequency and of the presence of non-compostable contaminants was studied. Furthermore, a decentralized community based composting scheme has been developed based on the strategy of waste leasing.In order to study the turning frequency, a fixed turning frequency is compared with a temperature-controlled turning method.The moisture content is adjusted to 50-60% in all cases. The results show that a high nutrient content and moderate concentration of heavy metals with no restrictions for use in agriculture are observed in almost all cases. Interestingly, plant growth bioassays indicate that the head weight and leaf area of lettuces are slightly but not significantly higherwhen less frequently turned compost is used. In a further study on the composting strategy the effects of the presence of contaminantson compost quality is investigated. Selected contaminants, 7% waste plastics and 2% bottle caps, were deliberately added to sorted compostable waste, and the compost quality was compared with the quality of compost derived from non-contaminated organic waste, and compost derived from non-sorted municipal waste containing a significant fraction of organic material. It was found that the maturation time of the composting process is longer for contaminated organic waste, but the quality of the compostwas sufficient in most cases. Concentrations of heavy metals are also within the acceptable range indicated by the Belgian compost quality guidelines values except cobalt, of which the concentration is slightly higher than the standard value for compost products (Brinton, 2000).To finalize the composting study, a small scale and decentralized community composting project through the waste leasing approach is conducted for one sub city on the basis of a pilot program, in which an informally established waste collection micro-scale enterprise consisting of 20 joblessis already operating. In waste leasing, households provide the sorted waste to the composters and receive the finished product at reduced price. The sale of the product is also open for any other users as well. The income from the sale of the product is used for sustaining the service. Currently, on average 10% (14,000 kg) of biodegradable organic waste generated at the sub city is composted every month. The price of 1 kgof the finished product is set at 1.5 ETB (Ethiopian Birr), which is half of the price of compost in Addis Ababa (capital of Ethiopia).The total saving of the microenterprise is thus calculated to be 31,000 ETB (€1,348) per year when this project becomes fully functional at the entire city level. This will allow the microenterprise to start up and run at least one more similar project and create another source of income andjob opportunity for jobless city residents. The production of biogas from the biodegradable fraction of the municipal waste was investigated as an alternative to the composting route. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential of organic municipal solid waste generated in an urban setting in a tropical climate to produce biogas. Fivedifferent categories of waste were considered: fruit waste, food waste,yard waste, paper waste and mixed waste. These fractions were assessed for their efficiency for biogas production in a laboratory scale batch digester for a total period of eight weeks at a temperature of 20-30oC. Mixed waste was found to be more efficient than other feedstocksfor biogas and methane production. Taking the total waste production inJimma into account, the total mixed organic solid waste can produce 865x103 m3 (5.4 m3/capita) of biogas or 537x103 m3 (3.4 m3/capita) of methane per year. The total caloric value of the methane production potentialfrom mixed organic municipal solid waste is many times higher than the total energy requirement of the area. 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Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems Section
Chemical Engineering - miscellaneous

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