Annual Meeting of the International Society for Political Psychology (ISPP) edition:36 location:Herzliya (Israel) date:8-11 July 2013
Dalton (2008) has suggested that citizenship norms change over time, as duty-based norms are being replaced by ‘engaged citizenship’. Thus far, however, this claim was based only on cross-sectional observations. In this article, we compare results from two comprehensive surveys: the 1999 Civic Education Study and the 2009 International Civic and Citizenship Survey (ICCS). Using latent class analysis, we demonstrate that duty-based and engaged citizenship norms can indeed be empirically distinguished, both in 1999 and in 2009, although it has to be noted that the two concepts do not completely overlap in both surveys. Furthermore, it can be observed that the group supporting duty-based citizenship norms clearly is smaller in 2009 than in 1999, while the opposite is true for the group supporting engaged citizenship norms. The distribution among countries, however, is not according to the dynamics on value change in modern societies as suggested by Dalton and other authors.