The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis (EKC) predicts an inverse U-shaped relationship between environmental pollution and per capita income. The literature with respect to the EKC is vast but far from conclusive. This paper adds firm size to the standard EKC reduced form regression and analyses whether firm size matters once income and composition are controlled for. Results suggest that large firm countries are initially associated with higher levels of environmental damage. However, as economies develop, large firm countries find it easier to adopt more stringent environmental legislation. Once environmental damage starts to decrease, the decrease ismuchlarger in large firm countries.