Trends in Parasitology vol:29 issue:7 pages:346-358
Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) is an increasingly reported, often lethal, and incompletely understood complication of malaria. We discuss and compare the pathogenesis of MA-ARDS in patients and in different murine models, including recent models without cerebral involvement, and summarize the roles of different leukocyte subclasses, adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. In patients as well as in mice, severe edema and impaired gas exchange are associated with abundant inflammatory infiltrates consisting of mainly mononuclear cells and parasite sequestration, and the pathogenesis appears different from cerebral malaria (CM). Experimental anti-inflammatory interventions are successful in mice and remain to be validated in patients.