The geomorphological map of the Lake Tana basin (15,077 km2, Nile basin, Ethiopia) presented in this paper was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed with a geographic information system (GIS). It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and morphometry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes at a scale of 1:500,000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and eroded primarily by water. Lake Tana emerged through a combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. When the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive lacustrine plain (e.g. Fogera and Dembia plains) were created, river valleys and basins were filled with sediment and higher lying topography was eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased extent (3041 km2) compared to the ancient maximum (6514 km2). Dominant processes today are fluvial and subaerial. Recent (1886–2010) changes in the lake coastline are small with the exception of the delta formed by Gilgel Abay, which has increased disproportionally over the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.