European Journal of Soil Science vol:63 issue:6 pages:839-847
Total vanadium (V) concentrations in soils commonly range from 20 to 120 mg kg(-1). Vanadium added directly to soils is more soluble than geogenic V and can be phytotoxic at doses within this range of background concentrations. However, it is unknown how slow sorption reactions change the fate and effect of added V in soils. This study addresses the changes in V solubility, toxicity and bioavailability in soils over time. Four soils were amended with pentavalent V in the form of a soluble vanadate salt, and extractable V concentrations were monitored over 100 days. The toxicity to barley and tomato plants was evaluated in freshly spiked soils and in the corresponding aged soils that were equilibrated for up to 330 days after spiking. The V concentrations in 0.01 m CaCl2 soil extracts decreased approximately two-fold between 14 and 100 days after soil spiking, and the reaction kinetics were similar for all soils. The phytotoxicity of added V decreased on average two-fold between freshly spiked and aged soils. The reduced toxicity was associated with a corresponding decrease in V concentrations in the isolated soil solutions and in the shoots. The V speciation in the soil solution of the aged soils was dominated by V(V); less than 8% was present as V(IV). Oxalate extractions suggest that the V(V) added to soils is predominantly sorbed onto poorly crystalline oxyhydroxides. It is concluded that the toxicity of V measured in freshly spiked soils may not be representative of soils subject to a long-term V contamination in the field.