American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology vol:208 issue:1 pages:19-30
Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at increased risk of adverse outcome because of the vascular anastomoses that connect the 2 fetal circulation systems. The shared circulation is responsible for some unique complications in monochorionic twins, such as the twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, the twin anemia polycythemia sequence, the twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence, and monoamniotic twinning. Another consequence of the shared circulation is that the well-being of one twin critically depends on that of the other. In this review, we will describe the technique of placental injection. Further, we will discuss the role of the vascular anastomoses in each of the complications described above and provide an update on their management.