European Journal of Neurology vol:20 issue:10 pages:1335-1341
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pseudoprogression is a frequent phenomenon observed since the introduction of postoperative therapy with radiotherapy and temozolomide (RT/TMZ) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. However, the criteria defining pseudoprogression, its incidence, the time of occurrence and its impact on therapy and outcome remain poorly defined. METHODS: The objective of this study is to compare two sets of criteria (liberal and stringent), defining pseudoprogression, in a cohort of patients treated before and after the introduction of RT/TMZ in the standard postoperative treatment. This retrospective review includes 136 unselected and consecutively treated patients with pathologically diagnosed GBM. RESULTS: Pseudoprogression was observed in 10 (12%) cases applying the stringent criteria, and in 18 (23%) patients when using the liberal criteria, in the cohort treated with RT/TMZ. Pseudoprogression was observed in only one patient treated with RT alone. The median time to pseudoprogression was 4 weeks after the end of RT. Patients with pseudoprogression had a median survival time of 28 months, compared with 12 months for patients without pseudoprogression. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of pseudoprogression after RT/TMZ strongly depends on the applied criteria. However, regardless of the stringency of the criteria, the impact on survival remains the same.