Day-to-day associations between subjective sleep and affect in regard to future depression in a female population-based sample
de Wild-Hartmann, Jessica A × Wichers, Marieke van Bemmel, Alex L Derom, Cathérine # Thiery, Evert Jacobs, Nele van Os, Jim Simons, Claudia J P #
Royal Medico-Psychological Association
British Journal of Psychiatry vol:202 pages:407-12
BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is a risk factor for depression, however little is known about the underlying mechanisms. AIMS: Disentangling potential mechanisms by which sleep may be related to depression by zooming down to the 'micro-level' of within-person daily life patterns of subjective sleep and affect using the experience sampling method (ESM). METHOD: A population-based twin sample consisting of 553 women underwent a 5-day baseline ESM protocol assessing subjective sleep and affect together with four follow-up assessments of depression. RESULTS: Sleep was associated with affect during the next day, especially positive affect. Daytime negative affect was not associated with subsequent night-time sleep. Baseline sleep predicted depressive symptoms across the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: The subtle, repetitive impact of sleep on affect on a daily basis, rather than the subtle repetitive impact of affect on sleep, may be one of the factors on the pathway to depression in women.