Food and Bioprocess Technology vol:7 issue:5 pages:1269-1280
The aim of this study was to determine the role of the precursors cadaverine and piperidine in the N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) formation during the production of dry fermented sausages. The influences of pH (4.9 and 5.3), sodium nitrite (0 and 150 mg/kg) and ascorbate (0 and 500 mg/kg) were investigated by the use of a dry fermented sausage model. The biogenic amines and volatile N-nitrosamines were analyzed by HPLC-UV and GC-TEA. The major biogenic amines were tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD), but their accumulation could be inhibited by NaNO2. When no amine precursors were added, no meaningful N-nitrosamine contamination was observed. The artificial addition of 500 mg/kg cadaverine dihydrochloride (CAD.2HCl) could not provoke an increased N-nitrosamine formation. In contrast, the addition of PIP (10 and 100 mg/kg) resulted in higher NPIP concentrations. No influence of pH was observed but the NPIP formation was more pronounced when NaNO2 was added and sodium ascorbate was excluded from the formulation. The role of ascorbate as N-nitrosamine scavenger was only detectable during the early stage of the production. In the end products, NPIP was degraded and the levels were no longer influenced by the initial addition of NaNO2 or ascorbate.